Transparency is a concept brought forward by a group of scholars at the University of Texas in the middle of the 20th century, who are also called altogether ‘the Texas Rangers’ and are represented mainly by Colin Rowe and Robert Slutzky.
The work Transparency mainly includes first the explanations of this concept and its following theory of ‘literal and phenomenal transparency’, and then the comparison among cubisist paintings and works by Walter Gropius and Le Corbusier.
The following links are useful for learning about this theory. The first is a pdf copy of Transparency (in Chinese), the second is a Pinterest board including most of the related illustrations in the book, to which I have been adding notes as comments according to the author’s opinions.
PDF file: transparency
Pinterest board website: http://pin.it/N6iphRY